Knowing how to build a shelter is one of the most valuable abilities when you’re stuck in the middle of nowhere.
How to Build Survival Shelters with Material Around You Wilderness Survival Shelters
My first piece of advice on how to make a shelter from natural materials is to look around for something man-made.
In my last article, we talked about the use of a vehicle or ship to keep us safe. But there are times when Mother Nature offer a hollow cave or natural covering.
This time around, I’m going to share some of the experiences I’ve had when Lady Luck is smiling down on someone else. There are times when we wish to build primitive shelters from scratch principally with natural materials, but we aren’t always successful in foraging for these.
Unless you’re trained in thatching roofs, opportunities are your survival shelter is going to let water in when it rains. A plastic suitcase buried in your purse or pocket will go a long way towards providing a precious bit of waterproofing.
Building A Teepee
This lovely leaf teepee that we building in the Smoky Mountains looks to be the epitome of primitive shelter house yet concealed beneath its lush foliage is a trash bag cover-up the apex. Thankfully it didn’t rain but it was very comforting to know that if it did we would remain dry, even though they are it entailed sitting upright and back to back.
As the weather turned out to be dry I sometimes wish we had lain down on the trash bag instead as were feed alive by chiggers on this expedition. Hindsight is a wonderful thing.
In my experience, bindings made from roots or vines are rarely as robust as commercially fabricated strings, ropes, and cords. You may think that you don’t have anything like that with you, but take a look at your clothes.
Your garb is your first line of defense in any survival situation and not just in the most literal sense — what are you wearing that you could accommodated and use?
A little trick that Myke taught me is to replace my boot laces with 550 paracords and wrap a few extra lengths round for good measure. It’s a ache in the backside if you ever have to travel through airport security but a lifesaver out in the bush.
Even if you don’t have 550 cord, your regular shoelaces will work wonders in tying the struts of your shelter together. As will fabric strips rent from the bottom of a shirt or skirt.
A single string of 550 cord cinched together with the top of this teepee in the Smokies. Always be sure to retrieve your cord, natural or otherwise, when you move on.
Another useful tip-off, though glaringly obvious, is attaining sure your shelter is big enough for you to fit into.
A single person can crunch into a remarkably small place, albeit with some discomfort, but if you’re making a temporary home for more than one person or your whole family it’s a good idea to exam it out sizing wise. As a mom, I’m always thinking things like, “Would my little boy cope with this?
Would this type of shelter work if he was with us? ”
This is Myke and I testing our shelter for size. Well, that’s my story and I’m sticking to it!
Building A Teepee Photo by Kotaksurat
Using A Poncho For Shelter
One of my absolute favorite items of clothing because its multi-faceted nature is the military poncho, yet I had never even heard of one before I gratify my husband. These days I carry one in my car, my camping kit, my survival bag and we have several other littered around the house that our boy plays in.
In addition to keeping you dry, a poncho has many potential uses in a survival situation; a rucksack, a raft, a tarp, a medical stretcher, and a smokehouse, to name but a few. And they construct fast and awesome survival shelters.
You can string one up in whatever manner you fancy or if you don’t have enough cord to construct a’ tent’ only lay one over any primitive shelter that you have made to act as extra waterproofing.
Here in Alaska, we strung one between two trees and then I filled the open sides with big leaves to help keep the heat in. When using a poncho in wet climes be sure to tie off the hood so you don’t get leaks.
Conversely, when it’s scorching prop the hood open so it acts as a vent.
There, of course, might be periods when you do have next to nothing on you or with you that you can use and you have to create a shelter from what you have around you. My least favorite is the debris shelter, but sometimes there is no choice.
For those who don’t know, a debris shelter is created by basically rubbing up old branches and leaves and piling them into a rudimentary shield against the elements.
We used one once when we were caught in a sudden tropical storm in Dominica. Itchy, uncomfortable and wet.
Using old branches and logs has obvious hazards, other things are also likely to be using them as a home- sometimes stinging bugs and arachnids but I have also find lethal poison dart frogs in old logs in the Osa Peninsula in Costa Rica. I also once sat on a fer de lance in a fallen tree in the Peruvian Amazon.
This snake kills more people in South America than any other. Not what you want as a bedfellow.
Building A Lean-to
Another basic shelter to attain when you’re too exhausted to do anything else or perhaps when the sun is fading is the’ lean-to’. I was making this one on a Lost Survivors shoot for Travel Channel as the sunlight was going down in the Appalachians in Kentucky.
The main spine was an old tree trunk that had fallen and caught on another tree( not fallen to the ground) then I placed cut branches and foliages to form the back wall. It was another night on the forest floor, which is never ideal but the shelter is blocking a harsh breeze that was kicking up.
On a separate trip to Kentucky, we wove a kind of cocoon out of river cane. We stuck either end of the canes into the ground to create a series of archways and then wove thinner more supple pieces of cane between the struts to attain the walls.
You can use this technique with any kind of reed or timber that is pliable enough, willow for example.
Building A Lean-to Photo by Kotaksurat
In the close-up picture of me standing in front of it, you can see pretty flowers embedded in the walls. This wasn’t an attempt to create bucolic loveliness out in the wilds.
It’s an eye-saving mechanism, the cut cane was razor sharp and the flowers mark the dagger-like ends.
Ruth Englund Building A Lean-to Photo by Kotaksurat
It is without a doubt better to sleep up off the floor if you can. Even a layer of cut branches on the ground will insulate you from the cold.
Another very important reason to be up is so you don’t encounter animals that could otherwise hurt or kill you. This is particularly true in tropical jungles and swamps.
My favorite shelter of all time was one at a beach in Aitutaki in the South Pacific. It was a platform protruding at one end from the top of some pandanus tree prop roots and supported at the other by tripods we made by lashing three sticks together.
The roof was a separate structure, a bit like a carport, crafted from palm leaves.
Building A Platform Shelter
Pandanus trees are great for shelter inducing, they seem a little like palm trees but have these mangrove style prop roots. It’s the roots that are special, they are both sturdy and bendy.
We constructed the cross slats of the platform from these roots. Once they were covered in palm fronds, it was like sleeping in a bed.
They bounce a little when you lay down. Wonderful!
The mosquitoes in Aitutaki were bad, the noise was like the whirring of a cheap hairdryer. All night long.
However, the opinion in the morning made life a little easier to bear.
The first time I visited the Amazon rainforest we constructed a more elaborate version of the Aitutaki platform shelter. Unlike in our South Sea haven Amazonian land animals like to bite you, sting you and feed you.
Quick Tip: Bringing Fire Into Your Shelter
Getting off the ground is an essential , not a luxury.
Fire is also vital for protection in the deep jungle. Though our platform was too high to feed a fire without having to climb down, repeatedly, to the forest floor.
A problem exacerbated that we had our boots off at night to dry out our foot and avoid jungle rot.
Mike came up with the ingenious solution of having the flame in the shelter with us!
Quick Tip: Bringing Fire Into Your Shelter Photo by Kotaksurat
We built another mini wood platform on our sleeping platform. Afterward, we daubed a layer of thick clay on top of it to prevent the flame from burning through.
We had very few insect problems because it also acted as a smudge fire. A carnival bit of the smoking was trapped in the shelter with us because of the roof.
We didn’t wake to the same amazing view as in Aitutaki. Thanks to our option of shelter we stimulated it through the night without becoming dinner for a jaguar.
Fire in the shelter Photo by Kotaksurat
Watch this video by J& J acres on how to build a teepee 😛 TAGEND
There is no blueprint for shelter build. Terrain and situation will dictate the final structure.
If I look back over the years and remember every single one that I’ve slept in, each one was different, each had its own set of quirks, foibles, inconveniences, and itches. You rarely sleep well in a wilderness shelter but it’s always better to have one than not.
Do you trust in these methods of building a shelter? Share your thoughts in the comments segment below!
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Editor’s Note: This post was originally published in February 2014 and has been updated for quality and relevancy.
Read more: survivallife.com